Sensation: 20% of Russians belong to the middle class

Andrey Bilzho, NewsIn our country now have a middle class. Its representatives make up 1/5 of the population of the country, and in the future in their ranks can still join up to one third of the citizens. However our sredneoblastnymi very different from their counterparts in the West. In order to identify these features, scientists have summarized the results of studies of this question in the analytical report of the Middle class as the social basis of competitiveness of Russia.Not a single rubleA stumbling block for many scholars and ladies, who studied for the last years the features of the Russian middle class was the issue of the appropriate level of income. Say, it primarily allows you to label the category of the successful representatives of the developing capitalism. Some researchers have proposed to start the countdown with 300-500 American monetary units per family member per month, others would raise the bar to $1000 or more. As a result, instead of clarifying picture of some scientists only confuse her and has mythologized. In is RAS came to the conclusion that in conditions of extremely extensive countries whose regions are not developed evenly, this approach is unacceptable. Just enough to reach a slightly higher level of welfare compared to the average in this region and you have one foot in the ranks of sredneoblastnogo.However, only one relatively high income in order to raise his social status is not enough, you must still comply with three conditions set forth by academic scientists. The first one is non-physical nature of the work. Sredneoblastnymi rather proletarians of mental work (as an exception, sociologists allow the inclusion in the composition of the middle class small portion - 5% of the population - skilled workers, small businessmen, employed, for example, repairing of cars or electronic equipment, and farmers). However, they must perform another prerequisite of belonging to the best class of the society is to have at least secondary education. Finally, the third criterion on which you insist is RAS, - the people have to feel their belonging to the middle class.Today all four criteria in our country already meets 20% of the population, or almost 28 million people.The main thing - work on yourselfThe success of sredneoblastnogo in life compared with other sectors of the country (except for 1.5% of the super-rich) due to the same cause, which is in the middle of the last century led to the formation of the middle class in the West. It is the willingness to change and a willingness to rely only on themselves and to exert all efforts in order to meet the requirements of an individual rapidly changing world. The majority of members(60%) the most advanced part of our society themselves characterize themselves as people who like to keep a low profile. Almost the same number of study participants (59%) agree with the statement important - it initiative, enterprise, search the new in work and life, willingness to take risks to be in the minority. The same number of respondents are confident that they can support themselves and their families without government assistance.Almost half of those 20% of the people in question, not only demonstrates much higher compared with other Russians proficiency in computer and car, work using foreign languages, but also constantly improve their knowledge: engaged in self-education, get a second or third degree, master new skills. For comparison, does not replenish our knowledge, only 16% of the middle class. Among the mass of the population such incurious had accumulated 64%.The result comes quickly: 84% of sredneoblastnogo has achieved over the last 3 years something substantial (got a promotion, increased their wealth, improved living conditions, opened his own business), while among the General population of similar achievements can be proud of only 30% of Russians.The state not a hindrance to successThe myth that to break through to a new quality of life it is necessary to engage in private enterprise, the report is RAS also dispels. Most of sredneoblastnogo (48%) are working in the public sector, which in recent years has ceased to be undervalued and much less profitable than private. In the latter occupied only a quarter of the average, self-employed engaged in fifth. An important feature of the domestic middle class is the presence in its composition a significant (15%) of the cohort solid statists: military personnel, intelligence personnel, the interior Ministry and Prosecutor's office.No less mythologized until recently was the idea of worldview and ideology of the middle class. Since the early 1990s, the efforts of the Democrats of the first wave in the mass consciousness persistently introduced the idea that the middle class is the vanguard of democracy and liberalism. This is partially true, the majority of the domestic sredneoblastnogo is no doubt that such unconditional on Western values such as liberalism and individualism, suitable for Russia. However, as the main owner in the country our norm, at least at the moment, prefer to see the state. They want it reserved the commanding heights in almost all key sectors of the economy. The percentage of those who would like to live in a society of individual freedom or social equality, were divided almost equally (37 and 36%, respectively). More than 2/3 of successful Russians put social justice above the interests of private business. In other words, the model of society, which seems to be our middle class is optimal, is described by the formula the combination of market economy with a strong socially-oriented government.The conclusion is that scientists do is RAS, is clear: Although the Russian middle class has certain ideological features compared with its Western European counterparts, in General his Outlook and social psychology are quite compatible with modern market economy, but not so popular among Russian neo-liberal elites, but rather in laworientation embodiment, similar to models of development that lives and breathes in post-war Germany and some Scandinavian countries.Who are our successful?1. Do non-physical work2. Have higher education3. We are confident that belong to the middle class4. Appreciate your achievements5. Rely on their own strength6. I like to keep a low profile7. Looking for a new in work and life8. Willing to take a chance and be in the minority9. Own a computer and a car10. Engaged in self-educationGeorgy IlyichevWhere are the middleThe public sector 48%The private sector is 24%Privatized enterprises - 11%Self-employment, of a foreign company, cooperatives - 17%Source: is RASDirector of the Institute of sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences Mikhail Gorshkov: the middle class is concentrated enormous human capital of the previous generationsNews: is it True that the middle class in Russia did not appear suddenly out of nowhere, and is largely the result of the previous Soviet generations?Michael Gorshkov: unlike other segments of the population in the middle class accumulated enormous human capital of the previous generations, because its representatives are in the majority come from the most educated part of the parent generations. Moreover, the tendency of falling into the middle class in the first place, those members of certain age groups that come from the most educated segments of the population, from generation to generation is enhanced. Thus, there is a kind of circuit of the middle class, increases its insularity that is a troubling symptom.News: is it Possible in the near future the expansion of the middle class?Pots: In the current environment, the expansion of the middle class at the expense of its periphery, and at the expense of some representatives of other groups is possible in the event of a serious improvement in the economic situation in the country. But it may affect the quality of human capital of the Russian middle class for the worse. This is due to the relatively lower prevalence among representatives of the periphery of the middle class progressive educational qualification strategies, striving for new consumer practices and a modern leisure preferences.News: national projects? Can their successful implementation can lead to the fact that our doctors and teachers, as in the West, will be part of the middle class primarily by income level?Pots: the Most adequate way of state action seems to be the choice of those strategic priorities of Russia's development, the main target on which to focus the available resources, including quality and human resources. In principle, while maintaining the positive dynamics of the Russian economy the size of the middle class may rise in the coming years, up to 30% of the population due to the transition to the representatives of the periphery of the middle class. But I have to note that the level of income is not the main criterion for the selection of the middle class. Primary is the level of professional qualification of the person. It leads ultimately to the appropriate level of material security. In relation to the Russian mentality is also important and social sense of self, expressed in the understanding of their social status. In this sense, the successful implementation of national projects initiated by the President, of course, will contribute to the expansion of objective and subjective borders of the Russian sredneoblastnogo.

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